濫用制裁的後果（上）/ The Consequences of Sanctions Abuse (Part 1)
2023 年 8 月 16 日
根據《外交政策》（Foreign Policy）7月24日的專家報道〈美國濫用制裁將會自食其果〉（America's Love of Sanctions Will BeIts Downfall），美國針對其他國家的制裁分為三個類別，分別是全面制裁（comprehensive sanctions）、針對性制裁（targeted sanctions）和出口管制（export controls）。根據哥倫比亞大學的資料庫，古巴、伊朗、朝鮮、俄羅斯、敘利亞和委內瑞拉正面對美國的全面制裁，絕大部分的商業與金融機構都不能與上述6個國家交易。包括阿富汗、伊拉克、剛果民主共和國和也門在內的17個國家則面對美國的針對性制裁，某些商業與金融機構不能與上述國家的公司、個人或政府交易。根據普林斯頓大學的資料庫，中國、厄利特里亞和斯里蘭卡等7個國家受到美國主要針對高科技產品的出口管制。除此以外，美國還向多個企業和人士實施制裁，其中包括香港和中央官員。
The Consequences of Sanctions Abuse (Part 1)
Over the past 20 years, the United States has widely utilized sanctions as a primary diplomatic tool and gradually perfected its "toolbox" of sanctions. Nowadays, the US has multiple laws empowering the President or Congress to impose sanctions on individuals, companies, corporations, and even foreign governments, extending its reach overseas to coerce or punish other countries. In recent years, the most notable sanction actions by the US government have been the series of sanctions imposed on Russia due to the Russo-Ukrainian War, as well as the sanctions imposed on Chinese companies under the pretext of "national security." In the past, the US primarily targeted countries widely recognized as "rogue states," such as Cuba, Myanmar, North Korea, Iran, and Venezuela. However, since China and Russia have also faced US sanctions, the standards for US sanctions have become increasingly indiscriminate.
According to an expert report titled "America's Love of Sanctions Will Be Its Downfall" published by Foreign Policy on July 24, the US sanctions against other countries can be classified into three categories: comprehensive sanctions, targeted sanctions, and export controls. According to the database of Columbia University, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Russia, Syria, and Venezuela are currently facing comprehensive sanctions from the US, and the vast majority of commercial and financial institutions are prohibited from engaging in transactions with these six countries. Seventeen countries, including Afghanistan, Iraq, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Yemen, are subject to targeted sanctions from the US, with certain businesses and financial institutions unable to engage in transactions with companies, individuals, or governments from these countries. According to the database of Princeton University, seven countries, including China, Eritrea, and Sri Lanka, are subject to US export controls primarily targeting high-tech products. In addition, the US has also imposed sanctions on multiple companies and individuals, including Hong Kong and central officials.
According to a report by the US Treasury Department in 2021, the US government at that time had sanctioned over 9,000 individuals, companies, and economic sectors, with 765 of them added by the newly inaugurated President Biden. According to statistics from Foreign Policy, the countries sanctioned by the US collectively account for one-fifth of the global GDP, reflecting the rampant nature of US sanctions.
In the next part, I will discuss the consequences of the US's abuse of sanctions.